[12/32] user documentation

Message ID 8e4293f5-24ce-e572-7445-97b82a756b6e@acm.org
State New
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  • C++ 20 Modules
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Commit Message

Nathan Sidwell Nov. 3, 2020, 9:15 p.m.
This is the user documentation.

Nathan Sidwell


Xionghu Luo via Gcc-patches Nov. 25, 2020, 7:17 p.m. | #1
On 11/3/20 2:15 PM, Nathan Sidwell wrote:
> This is the user documentation.



> 12-core-doc.diff


I think this is fine. 


diff --git c/gcc/doc/invoke.texi w/gcc/doc/invoke.texi
index 492b7dcdf10..3fdee8bbd3b 100644
--- c/gcc/doc/invoke.texi
+++ w/gcc/doc/invoke.texi
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@  The usual way to run GCC is to run the executable called @command{gcc}, or
 When you compile C++ programs, you should invoke GCC as @command{g++} 
 instead.  @xref{Invoking G++,,Compiling C++ Programs}, 
 for information about the differences in behavior between @command{gcc} 
-and @code{g++} when compiling C++ programs.
+and @command{g++} when compiling C++ programs.
 @cindex grouping options
 @cindex options, grouping
@@ -172,6 +172,7 @@  listing and explanation of the binary and decimal byte size prefixes.
 * Spec Files::          How to pass switches to sub-processes.
 * Environment Variables:: Env vars that affect GCC.
 * Precompiled Headers:: Compiling a header once, and using it many times.
+* C++ Modules::		Experimental C++20 module system.
 @end menu
 @c man begin OPTIONS
@@ -595,7 +596,7 @@  Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialects}.
 -fpreprocessed  -ftabstop=@var{width}  -ftrack-macro-expansion  @gol
 -fwide-exec-charset=@var{charset}  -fworking-directory @gol
 -H  -imacros @var{file}  -include @var{file} @gol
--M  -MD  -MF  -MG  -MM  -MMD  -MP  -MQ  -MT @gol
+-M  -MD  -MF  -MG  -MM  -MMD  -MP  -Mno-modules -MQ  -MT @gol
 -no-integrated-cpp  -P  -pthread  -remap @gol
 -traditional  -traditional-cpp  -trigraphs @gol
 -U@var{macro}  -undef  @gol
@@ -1567,7 +1568,7 @@  name suffix).  This option applies to all following input files until
 the next @option{-x} option.  Possible values for @var{language} are:
 c  c-header  cpp-output
-c++  c++-header  c++-cpp-output
+c++  c++-header  c++-system-header c++-user-header c++-cpp-output
 objective-c  objective-c-header  objective-c-cpp-output
 objective-c++ objective-c++-header objective-c++-cpp-output
 assembler  assembler-with-cpp
@@ -3037,6 +3038,63 @@  To save space, do not emit out-of-line copies of inline functions
 controlled by @code{#pragma implementation}.  This causes linker
 errors if these functions are not inlined everywhere they are called.
+@item -fmodules-ts
+@itemx -fno-modules-ts
+@opindex fmodules-ts
+@opindex fno-modules-ts
+Enable support for C++ 20 modules.  The @option{-fno-modules-ts} is
+usually not needed, as that is the default.  Even though this is a
+C++20 feature, it is not currently implicitly enabled by selecting
+that standard version.
+@item -fno-module-lazy
+@opindex fno-module-lazy
+@opindex fmodule-lazy
+Disable lazy module importing and module mapper creation.
+@item -fmodule-header
+@itemx -fmodule-header=user
+@itemx -fmodule-header=system
+@opindex fmodule-header
+Compile as a header unit.
+@item -fmodule-implicit-inline
+@opindex fmodule-implicit-inline
+Memmber functions defined in their class definitions are not
+implicitly inline for modular code.  This is different to traditional
+C++ behaviour, for good reasons.  However, it may result in a
+difficulty during code porting.  This option will make such function
+definitions implicitly inline.  It does however generate an ABI
+incompatibility, so you must use it everywhere or nowhere.  (Such
+definitions outside of a named module remain implicitly inline,
+@item -fmodule-only
+@opindex fmodule-only
+Only emit the module CMI, inhibiting any object file.
+@item -flang-info-include-translate
+@itemx -flang-info-include-translate=@var{header}
+@opindex flang-info-include-translate
+Note include translation events.
+@item -Winvalid-imported-macros
+@opindex Winvalid-imported-macros
+@opindex Wno-invalid-imported-macros
+Verify all imported macro definitions are valid at end of
+compilation.  This is not enabled by default, as it requires
+additional processing to determine.
+@item -fmodule-mapper=@r{[}@var{hostname}@r{]}:@var{port}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+@itemx -fmodule-mapper=|@var{program}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]} @var{args...}
+@itemx -fmodule-mapper==@var{socket}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+@itemx -fmodule-mapper=@var{file}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+@vindex CXX_MODULE_MAPPER @r{environment variable}
+@opindex fmodule-mapper
+An oracle to query for module name to filename mappings.  If
+unspecified the @env{CXX_MODULE_MAPPER} environment variable is used,
+and if that is unset, a default is provided.
 @item -fms-extensions
 @opindex fms-extensions
 Disable Wpedantic warnings about constructs used in MFC, such as implicit
@@ -14215,7 +14273,7 @@  Note that it is quite common that execution counts of some part of
 programs depends, for example, on length of temporary file names or
 memory space randomization (that may affect hash-table collision rate).
 Such non-reproducible part of programs may be annotated by
-@code{no_instrument_function} function attribute. @code{gcov-dump} with
+@code{no_instrument_function} function attribute. @command{gcov-dump} with
 @option{-l} can be used to dump gathered data and verify that they are
 indeed reproducible.
@@ -16585,6 +16643,11 @@  By default, the dump will contain messages about successful
 optimizations (equivalent to @option{-optimized}) together with
 low-level details about the analysis.
+@item -fdump-lang
+@opindex fdump-lang
+Dump language-specific information.  The file name is made by appending
+@file{.lang} to the source file name.
 @item -fdump-lang-all
 @itemx -fdump-lang-@var{switch}
 @itemx -fdump-lang-@var{switch}-@var{options}
@@ -16605,6 +16668,14 @@  Enable all language-specific dumps.
 Dump class hierarchy information.  Virtual table information is emitted
 unless '@option{slim}' is specified.  This option is applicable to C++ only.
+@item module
+Dump module information.  Options @option{lineno} (locations),
+@option{graph} (reachability), @option{blocks} (clusters),
+@option{uid} (serialization), @option{alias} (mergeable),
+@option{asmname} (Elrond), @option{eh} (mapper) & @option{vops}
+(macros) may provide additional information.  This option is
+applicable to C++ only.
 @item raw
 Dump the raw internal tree data.  This option is applicable to C++ only.
@@ -32246,3 +32317,225 @@  precompiled header, the actual behavior is a mixture of the
 behavior for the options.  For instance, if you use @option{-g} to
 generate the precompiled header but not when using it, you may or may
 not get debugging information for routines in the precompiled header.
+@node C++ Modules
+@section C++ Modules
+@cindex speed of compilation
+Modules are a C++ 20 language feature.  As the name suggests, it
+provides a modular compilation system, intending to provide both
+faster builds and better library isolation.  The ``Merging Modules''
+paper @uref{http//wg21.link/p1103}, provides the easiest to read set
+of changes to the standard, although it does not capture later
+changes.  That specification is now in the C++ Working Draft,
+@uref{git@@github.com:cplusplus/draft.git}, as of 2020-03-14, it is
+considered complete (there may be defect reports to come).
+@emph{Modules support is a work in progress.  The implementation is
+not complete.  Command-line options are not stable.}
+Modular compilation is @emph{not} enabled with just the
+@option{-std=c++20} option.  You must explicitly enable it with the
+@option{-fmodules-ts} option.  It is independent of the language
+version selected.
+No new source file suffixes are required or supported.  If you wish to
+use a non-standard suffix (@xref{Overall Options}), you will also need
+to provide a @option{-x c++} option too.@footnote{Some users like to
+distinguish module interface files with a new suffix, such as naming
+the source @code{module.cppm}, which involves
+teaching all tools about the new suffix.  A different scheme, such as
+naming @code{module-m.cpp} would be less invasive.}
+Compiling a module interface unit produces an additional output (to
+the assembly or object file), called a Compiled Module Interface
+(CMI).  This encodes the exported declarations of the module.
+Importing a module reads in the CMI.  The import graph is a Directed
+Acyclic Graph (DAG).  You must build imports before the importer.
+Header files may themselves be compiled to header units, which are a
+transitional ability aiming at faster compilation.  The
+@option{-fmodule-header} option is used to enable this, and implies
+the @option{-fmodules-ts} option.  These CMIs are named by the fully
+resolved underlying header file, and thus may be a complete pathname
+containing subdirectories.  If the header file is found at an absolute
+pathname, the CMI location is still relative to a CMI root directory.
+As header files often have no suffix, you commonly have to specify a
+@option{-x} option to tell the compiler the source is a header file.
+You may use @option{-x c++-header}, @option{-x c++-user-header} or
+@option{-x c++-system-header}.  When used in conjunction with
+@option{-fmodules-ts}, these all imply an appropriate
+@option{-fmodule-header} option.  The latter two variants will use the
+user or system include path to search for the file specified.  This
+allows you to, for instance, compile standard library header files as
+header units, without needing to know exactly where they are
+installed.  Specifying the language as one of these variants also
+inhibits output of the object file, as header files have no associated
+object file.
+When creating an output CMI any missing directory components are
+created in a manner that is safe for concurrent builds creating
+multiple, different, CMIs within a common subdirectory tree.
+CMI contents are written to a temporary file, which is then atomically
+renamed.  Observers will either see old contents (if there is an
+existing file), or complete new contents.  They will not observe the
+CMI during its creation.  This is unlike object file writing, which
+may be observed by an external process.
+CMIs are read in lazily.  Generally blocks are read when name lookup
+or template instantiation occurs.  To inhibit this, the
+@option{-fno-module-lazy} option may be used.
+The @option{-fmodule-only} option disables generation of the
+associated object file for compiling a module interface.  Only the CMI
+is generated.  This option is implied when using the
+@option{-fmodule-header} option.
+The @option{--param lazy-modules=@var{n}} parameter controls the limit
+on the number of concurrently open module files during lazy loading.
+Should more modules be imported, an LRU algorithm is used to determine
+which files to close -- until that file is needed again.  This limit
+may be exceeded with deep module dependency hierarchies.  With large
+code bases there may be more imports than the process limit of file
+descriptors.  By default, the limit is a few less than the per-process
+file descriptor hard limit, if that is determinable.@footnote{Where
+applicable the soft limit is incremented as needed towards the hard limit.}
+The @option{-flang-info-include-translate} options note whether
+include translation occurs.  With no argument, all include translation
+is noted.  Otherwise, queries about include translation of a specific
+header file is noted.  The latter form may be repeated.
+The @option{-Winvalid-imported-macros} option causes all imported macros
+to be resolved at the end of compilation.  Without this, imported
+macros are only resolved when expanded or (re)defined.  This option
+will detect conflicting import definitions for all macros.
+The @option{-fmodule-mapper} family of options are described below.
+* C++ Module Mapper::       Module Mapper
+* C++ Module Preprocessing::  Module Preprocessing
+@end menu
+@node C++ Module Mapper
+@subsection Module Mapper
+@cindex C++ Module Mapper
+A module mapper provides a server or file that the compiler queries to
+determine the mapping between module names and CMI files.  It is also
+used to build CMIs on demand.  A mapper may be specified with the
+@option{-fmodule-mapper=@var{val}} option or @env{CXX_MODULE_MAPPER}
+environment variable.  The value may have one of the following forms:
+@table @gcctabopt
+@item @r{[}@var{hostname}@r{]}:@var{port}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+An optional hostname and a numeric port number to connect to.  If the
+hostname is omitted, the loopback address is used.  If the hostname
+corresponds to multiple IPV6 addresses, these are tried in turn, until
+one is successful.  If your host lacks ipv6, this form is
+non-functional.  If you must use ipv4 @emph{get with the 21st century},
+or failing that use @option{-fmodule-mapper='|ncat @var{ipv4host}
+@item =@var{socket}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+A local domain socket.  If your host lacks local domain sockets, this
+form is non-functional.
+@item |@var{program}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]} @r{[}@var{args...}@r{]}
+A program to spawn, and communicate with on its stdin/stdout streams.
+Your @var{PATH} environment variable is searched for the program.
+Arguments are separated by space characters, (it is not possible for
+one of the arguments delivered to the program to contain a space).
+@item <>@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+@item <>@var{fdinout}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+@item <@var{fdin}>@var{fdout}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+File descriptors to communicate over.  The first form, @option{<>},
+communicates over stdin and stdout.  The second form specifies a
+bidirectional file descriptor and the last form allows specifying
+two independent descriptors.  Note that other compiler options might
+cause the compiler to read stdin or write stdout.
+@item @var{file}@r{[}?@var{ident}@r{]}
+A mapping file consisting of space-separated module-name, filename
+pairs, one per line.  Only the mappings for the direct imports and any
+module export name need be provided.  If other mappings are provided,
+they override those stored in any imported CMI files.  A repository
+root may be specified in the mapping file by using @samp{$root} as the
+module name in the first active line.
+@end table
+As shown, an optional @var{ident} may suffix the first word of the
+option, indicated by a @samp{?} prefix.  The value is used in the
+initial handshake with the module server, or to specify a prefix on
+mapping file lines.  In the server case, the main source file name is
+used if no @var{ident} is specified.  In the file case, all non-blank
+lines are significant, unless a value is specified, in which case only
+lines beginning with @var{ident} are significant.  The @var{ident}
+must be separated by whitespace from the module name.  Be aware that
+@samp{<}, @samp{>}, @samp{?}  and @samp{|} characters are often
+significant to the shell, and therefore may need quoting.
+The mapper is connected to or loaded lazily, when the first module
+mapping is required.  The networking protocols are only supported on
+hosts that provide networking.  If no mapper is specified a default is
+A project-specific mapper is expected to be provided by the build
+system that invokes the compiler.  It is not expected that a
+general-purpose server is provided for all compilations.  As such, the
+server will know the build configuration, the compiler it invoked, and
+the environment (such as working directory) in which that is
+operating.  As it may parallelize builds, several compilations may
+connect to the same socket.
+The default mapper generates CMI files in a @samp{gcm.cache}
+directory.  CMI files have a @samp{.gcm} suffix.  The module unit name
+is used directly to provide the basename.  Header units construct a
+relative path using the underlying header file name.  If the path is
+already relative, a @samp{,} directory is prepended.  Internal
+@samp{..} components are translated to @samp{,,}.  No attempt is made
+to canonicalize these filenames beyond that done by the preprocessor's
+include search algorithm, as in general it is ambiguous when symbolic
+links are present.
+The mapper protocol was published as ``A Module Mapper''
+@uref{https://wg21.link/p1184}.  The implementation is provided by
+@command{libcody}, @uref{https://www.github.com/urnathan/libcody},
+which specifies the canonical protocol definition.  A proof of concept
+server implementation embedded in @command{make} was described in
+''Make Me A Module'', @uref{https://wg21.link/p1602}.
+@node C++ Module Preprocessing
+@subsection Module Preprocessing
+@cindex C++ Module Preprocessing
+Modules affect preprocessing because of header units and include
+translation.  Some uses of the preprocessor as a separate step will
+either not produce a correct output, or require CMIs to be available.
+Header units import macros.  These macros can affect later conditional
+inclusion, which therefore can cascade to differing import sets.  When
+preprocessing, it is necessary to load the CMI.  If a header unit is
+unavailable, the preprocessor will issue a warning and continue (when
+no just preprocessing, an error is emitted).  Detecting such imports
+requires preprocessor tokenization of the input stream to phase 4
+(macro expansion).
+Include translation converts @code{#include}, @code{include_next} and
+@code{import} directives to internal @code{import} declarations.
+Whether a particular directive is translated is controlled by the
+module mapper.  Header unit names are canonicalized during
+Dependency information can be emitted for macro import, extending the
+functionality of @option{-MD} and @option{-MMD} options.  Detection of
+import declarations also requires phase 4 preprocessing, and thus
+requires full preprocessing (or compilation).
+The @option{-M}, @option{-MM} and @option{-fdirectives-only} options halt
+preprocessing before phase 4.
diff --git c/gcc/doc/cppopts.texi w/gcc/doc/cppopts.texi
index 7f1849d841f..0df8f4cb446 100644
--- c/gcc/doc/cppopts.texi
+++ w/gcc/doc/cppopts.texi
@@ -139,6 +139,11 @@  this useless.
 This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles.
+@item -Mno-modules
+@opindex Mno-modules
+Disable dependency generation for compiled module interfaces.  Some
+dependency parsers are not fully make-compatible.
 @item -MP
 @opindex MP
 This option instructs CPP to add a phony target for each dependency